Don’t worry if you don’t write much during your first reading of the article. Lo

    Don’t worry if you don’t write much during your first reading of the article. Look up all words
    that are unfamiliar to you, and write down definitions. Enjoy the article you selected. Immerse
    yourself in the ideas on the first go-round. You may find it helpful to sleep on your discoveries
    and then get down to more structured work the next day, during the next 1 or 2 readings.
    3. Don’t highlight. Write your own thoughts in the margins and on your note paper.
    4. Use the questions we’ve brainstormed to elicit questions at the higher levels of thinking in
    Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analyze evaluate
    5. Try to think of “How…?”, “Why…?”, and “What if…?” questions.
    6. Run your thoughts and questions through your newly acquired scientific filters, to sort what is
    scientific and what is not. You can write all about your thinking, but you must keep it sorted.
    7. Now you’ve got the pieces of an essay with substance! Step 3. Check your subjective criteria
    • Be honest.
    • Be consistent, if you can. If you can’t, admit it. It’s alright if you are confused and ambiguous if that’s
    your best effort right now, and don’t try to pass yourself off as otherwise. Like a scientist, you are
    expected to point out the inconsistencies and ambiguities in your thinking.
    • Write your own essay. Don’t consult anyone about what you should think or write. And try not to write
    what you think someone else would expect you to say (including me). As a thinking person, you owe
    yourself your shot at this.
    • Be concise. As always, there is a one-page limit. Boil down your thoughts.
    Some tips about the reading, thinking, and writing to produce your one-page essay:
    • Although it should be clear to the reader that you read and understood the entire article, DO NOT
    SUMMARIZE THE ARTICLE. The focus of this lab is your response to the content of the article
    through the lens of your current training in the process and philosophy of science, and your own
    experiences. Make your remarks reflective, argumentative, analytical, or reactive.
    • Avoid quoting material from the article or from any other source in this one-page essay. Rather, frame
    the ideas in your own words, and build your own story.
    • The best way to plan your essay is to do all of your reading and note taking until you understand the
    material. Then get the original material out of your sight and write your thoughts in your own way. If you
    get stuck, put the writing away and go back to the original material; you’re not yet ready to write that
    part. After reading over your article and notes again, try going back to writing (with the reading materials
    out of sight). The writing process described here will strengthen your thinking skills, and help you avoid
    plagiarism.
    • Your paper will ideally display your critical thinking and writing skills in the best possible light. You
    will probably need to write at least 3 drafts. Edit typographical and grammatical errors from your final
    draft.
    • I recommend the use of the Success Center to help you critique your work before turn it in
    Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) | U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (fws.gov)
    Arroyo toad (biologicaldiversity.org)
    Arroyo toad – Facts, Diet, Habitat & Pictures on Animalia.bio
    Arroyo Toad | Los Padres ForestWatch (lpfw.org)
    Arroyo Toad (sdrp.org)

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