Answer questions 1-20 using attached pdf sources Cullen and Jonson chapter 1 and

    Answer questions 1-20 using attached pdf sources Cullen and Jonson chapter 1 and the article “Evidence-Based Corrections: Identifying What Works” by Doris Layton MacKenzie.
    For essay question 21: Write a 600 words essay with references cited page in a substantive/practical/applicable essay answering “Specific and general deterrence have two separate goals but are both part of the deterrence perspective. How do the two types differ and how do they each work to prevent future crime?”.
    3 assigned essay sources for #21 – Cullen and Jonson chapter 1, the article “Evidence-Based Corrections: Identifying What Works” by Doris Layton MacKenzie, and 1 relatable Bible quote.
    Question 1
    Approximately how many offenders are imprisoned in state and federal institutions in the United States?
    a. 1.5 million
    b. 100,000
    c. 250,000
    d. 5.5 million
    Question 2
    Which of the following is not a component of rival correctional theories?
    a. there is a statement or goal of corrections
    b. the theory must “do no harm”
    c. each theory has an implicit or explicit blueprint for how the correctional system should be arranged
    d. the theory must make a claim of effectiveness

    Question 3
    Which of the following statements about the retribution or just deserts perspective is true?
    a. Group of answer choices
    b. offenders must restore the victims and communities they harmed
    c. crime can only be prevented by interventions early in life
    d. people need to be taught that “crime does not pay”
    e. people who harm others deserve to be harmed equally in response

    Question 4
    Which of the following statements about the purpose of correctional theories is not true?
    a. Group of answer choices
    b. correctional theories identify what the purpose of the correctional system should be
    c. the popularity of completing correctional theories has been shaped by the prevailing social context
    d. theories should be developed based on gut feelings or intuitive knowledge
    e. the key to knowing what does and does not work is evidence-based data
    Question 5
    Which of the following best describes specific deterrence?
    a. Group of answer choices
    b. offenders are not able to reoffend because they are incapacitated
    c. offenders will refrain from reoffending so as to avoid the cost of criminal sanctions
    d. offenders are less likely to reoffend if they are being monitored
    e. people might decide not to commit a crime depending on what happens to others

    Question 6
    According to incapacitation theory, which is not one of the ways to reduce crime?
    a. Group of answer choices
    b. indiscriminate incapacitation
    c. incapacitation effect
    d. collective incapacitation
    e. selective incapacitation
    Question 7
    A utilitarian theory is defined as:
    a. punishing offenders as an end in and of itself
    b. theory that is used for correctional institutions
    c. a theory that is guided by evidence-based practices
    d. seeking to sanction offenders not simply to sanction them, but for some other purpose (e.g., reduce crime)

    Question 8
    Which theory is the non-utilitarian perspective?
    a. deterrence
    b. rehabilitation
    c. retribution/just deserts
    d. incapacitation

    Question 9
    Approximately how many state and federal prisoners are returned to society each year?
    a. 1.0 million
    b. 600,000
    c. 5,000
    d. 100,000

    Question 10
    Which of the following perspectives suggest that crime can be prevented by intervening through biological, psychological, and social conditions?
    a. deterrence
    b. restorative justice
    c. reentry
    d. early intervention

    Question 11
    Which of the following statements describes the opportunity cost that incapacitation theory confronts?
    a. money should be devoted to preventing crime as opposed to punishing those who commit crime
    b. the cost of prisons is difficult to maintain
    c. money devoted to prisons cannot be used elsewhere
    d. money spent on rehabilitation is more effective than incapacitation

    Question 12
    According to reentry theory, which of the following is not a phase in which programs can be undertaken?
    a. fully after incarceration
    b. during sentencing
    c. during incarceration
    d. during a period that spans or follows incarceration

    Question 13
    Which of the following statements describes the inherent logic of early intervention?
    a. it is not broke, why fix it?
    b. they all come back
    c. if you do the crime, you will do the time
    d. if something can be prevented, then why not do so?

    Question 14
    Utilitarian goals only “make sense” if they have utility or _________:
    a. benefits
    b. opinions
    c. no morals
    d. common sense

    Question 15
    Which of the following statements is an example of correctional quackery?
    a. using correctional interventions based on results from a meta-analysis of 150 studies
    b. using correctional interventions based on empirical evidence
    c. using correctional interventions based on previous experience
    d. using correctional interventions based on previous successful interventions

    Question 16
    Which of the following statements about outsider knowledge is true?
    a. knowledge based on personal experience
    b. knowledge from someone else who has been incarcerated in a correctional facility
    c. knowledge based on someone who works in the agency
    d. knowledge from empirical data

    Question 17
    Which of the following is not a limitation associated with insider knowledge?
    a. the N-of-1 problem
    b. the selectivity-of-perceptions problem
    c. the interpersonal-bias problem
    d. the conflicting-personal-experience problem

    Question 18
    Baseball is related to corrections in which of the following ways?
    a. existing scientific evidence should be used to make decisions
    b. they both seek to fill capacity of their respective facilities
    c. people tend to focus on statistics too much when they should be focusing on their personal experience
    d. by working with those in the field, more insight can be gained to help make decisions

    Question 19
    The purpose of rehabilitation is to:
    a. change factors that are causing offenders to break the law
    b. make sure that offenders are punished for their crime
    c. reduce harm to the offender, victim, and community
    d. scare the public straight

    Question 20
    Which of the following theories is considered both non-utilitarian and utilitarian?
    a. rehabilitation
    b. restorative justice
    c. deterrence
    d. retribution

    Question 21 (550-600 words essay):
    Essay question – Specific and general deterrence have two separate goals but are both part of the deterrence perspective. How do the two types differ and how do they each work to prevent future crime?
    Add a references cited section at the end of the essay.
    Sources:
    – Cullen and Jonson chapter one
    – Evidence-Based Corrections: Identifying What Works by Doris Layton MacKenzie
    – The Bible (quotes to relate to or strengthen the essay)

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